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Dmitri Diakonov
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Confining ensemble of dyons
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We construct the integration measure over the moduli space of an arbitrary
number of N kinds of dyons of the pure SU(N) gauge theory at finite
temperatures. The ensemble of dyons governed by the measure is mathematically
described by a (supersymmetric) quantum field theory that is exactly solvable
and is remarkable for a number of striking features: 1) The free energy has the
minimum corresponding to the zero average Polyakov line, as expected in the
confining phase; 2) The correlation function of two Polyakov lines exhibits a
linear potential between static quarks in any N-ality non-zero
representation, with a calculable string tension roughly independent of
temperature; 3) The average spatial Wilson loop falls off exponentially with
its area and the same string tension; 4) At a critical temperature the ensemble
of dyons rearranges and de-confines; 5) The estimated ratio of the critical
temperature to the square root of the string tension is in excellent agreement
with the lattice data.