L. A. Sliv

(1911 -- 1983)

Professor Lev Abramovich Sliv was born in Vitebsk, Byelorussia, on January 14, 1911. At the age of sixteen he began to make his living as a factory worker in Leningrad. His bent for physics eventually brought him in 1931 to the Physics Department of Leningrad University. He stayed here as a student and lecturer until 1941, and here his first papers on physics were written. During World War II L.A.Sliv served as an anti-aircraft artillery officer protecting the sky over Leningrad from the attack of German pilots. After the war he quickly resumed his scientific and teaching activities, first taking up the chair of physics at the Leningrad Agricultural Institute. In 1949 he moved to the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute and left it only in 1971 with the establishment of the Leningrad (Petersburg) Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, near St.Petersburg. At Gatchina he headed the Nuclear theory department up to the last day of his life.

Professor Sliv's works have helped to shape many chapters of contemporary nuclear physics, among them those on the borderline between nuclear and atomic physics. His excellent science intuition helped him during all his life to select the tasks for investigation which importance as a rule increased in time. He began with the study of nuclear ß-decay and was the first to point out the importance of nuclear finite-size effects in ß-decay (particularly in the case of forbidden transitions). His prediction of mono-energetic positron emission in the conversion of nuclear X-rays aroused great interest and was later confirmed experimentally. His study of the internal conversion of nuclear X-rays was very important and widely recognized. Under his supervision the tables of internal conversion coefficients, the most accurate at that time, were calculated and published. His works have greatly advanced the process of developing conversion experiments into one of the most popular methods for obtaining information on nuclei.

Professor Sliv's contribution to nuclear structure studies was equally significant. His group's comprehensive shell-model calculations of nuclear spectra, transition probabilities and other nuclear observables should in particular be mentioned. These works contributed much to the modern understanding of the effective interaction of nucleons inside nuclei. They made it possible for him and his collaborators to predict a number of nuclear isomers. The paper concerning the isobaric spin mixture in nuclei was no less important in that it stimulated the development of the theory of isoanalog states. During the last years of his life Professor Sliv was actively involved in the study of giant resonances and of nuclei far from the stability line; he was also getting interested in the effects of quark structure of the nucleon

upon nuclear properties.

This short description of Professor Sliv's contribution to physics would be one-sided without paying tribute to him as a teacher and as an enthusiast of international scientific cooperation. He fostered a large group of Russian nuclear and atomic physicists and was one of the founders of the Winter School on nuclear and elementary particle physics, now held early at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. Under his permanent scientific guidance, and mainly due to his enthusiasm, the School has during the forty years of its existence. It expanded from a modest local arrangement to an undertaking that now attracts leading Russian and foreign nuclear physicists and which is well known abroad.

The close international cooperation of physicists was Professor Sliv's cherished dream, and he did his best to make it come true. He was one of those who in the fifties built the first bridges between Soviet and foreign nuclear physicists. Appreciating his service, A.Bohr and B.Mottelson wrote in the preface to the Russian edition of their book ``Nuclear Structure": Professor Sliv was a pioneer in the establishment of this cooperation [between Soviet physicists and the Niels Bohr Institute] and he has continued to be an especially valued colleague and critic for the group in Copenhagen.

Professor Sliv's personality was marked with extreme benevolence and tact. He had a rare talent to dispose others to confiding talk and to make them feel that all their hardships were deeply sympathized with. Matching his character, his style of scientific guidance was mild and not in the least vexing. With his broad views on theoretical physics and on the whole of science, he would even encourage working out a problem only indirectly related to nuclear physics if he saw his pupil's zeal and ability to produce new results.

Nuclear physics will long feel the impact of Professor Sliv's works. His personality will be kept forever in the memory of all those who knew him.

Publications of
L.A. SLIV

- On the recoil momentum in ß-decay, Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR, 23, 338 (1939)
- Shape of ß spectra and
the neutrino mass, Dokl.
Acad. Nauk SSSR, 24, 33
(1939)

- The structure of light nuclei and its effect on ß-decay rate, Thesis resume (Leningrad University, Leningrad, 1946) [in russian].
- On the theory of forbidden ß transitions, ZhETF 17, 1049 (1947).
- Rate of mono-energetic positron production in the internal conversion, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 64, 321 (1949).
- The 1414 keV line: its fine structure and multipolarity of its components (with G.D.Latyshev, I.F.Barchuk and A.A.Bashilov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 13, 340 (1949).
- On the ß-decay of $^3$H (with M.E.Voikhanskii and B.S.Dzhelepov), Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 66, 829 (1949).
- On the theory of double ß-decay}, ZhETF 20, 1035 (1950).
- Nuclear finite-size effects in calculation of internal conversion coefficients, ZhETF 21, 770 (1951).
- L1-shell internal conversion of magnetic dipole radiation with the nuclear finite-size effects taken into account (with M.A.Listengarten), ZhETF 22, 29 (1952).
- On the general structure of ß-decay interaction, Izv.Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.), 16, 306 (1952).
- Tensor-type interaction in the ß-decay theory, and the spectra of second-order forbidden transitions (with L.N.Zyryanova), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 16, 310 (1952).
- Analysis of nuclear excited levels by means of the shell model (with L.K.Peker and A.V.Zolotavin), Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 88, 781 (1953);
- On tow systems of nuclear excited levels (with L.K.Peker), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 17, 411 (1953).
- Analysis of the mono-energetic positron production phenomenon, ZhETF 25, 7 (1953); J. Phys. Rad. 16, 589 (1955).
- Two-nucleon transitions in nuclei (with L.K.Peker), Dokl.Akad. Nauk SSSR 92, 277 (1953).
- On a possible test of the nuclear shell model (with L.K.Peker), ZhETF 25, 381 (1953).
- Collective model and the properties of low nuclear excitations (with L.K.Peker), Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 94, 849 (1954).
- $\alpha$-decay and the shell model (with L.K.Peker), Dokl.Akad. Nauk SSSR 99, 727 (1954).
- On the determination of nuclear surface deformation (with L.K.Peker), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 19, 355 (1955).
- Interaction of $\gamma$-radiation with atomic electrons, Doctoral dissertation resum'e (Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute, Leningrad, 1955) [in russian].
- Internal conversion coefficients for K shell (with I.M.Band), ZhETF 31, 134 (1956).
- Tables of internal conversion coefficients, K shell (with I.M.Band), (USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1956) [in russian].
- Tables of Coulomb phases and amplitudes with the nuclear finite-size effects taken into account (with B.A.Volchok) (USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1956) [in russian].
- Electric monopole transitions in odd-mass nuclei (with L.K.Peker), ZhETF 32, 621 (1957).
- Tables of internal conversion coefficients, L-shell (with I.M.Band) (USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1958) [in russian].
- Pair interaction and the equilibrium shape of nuclei (with B.L.Birbrair), In: Low- and medium-energy nuclear reactions, ed. F.P.Denisov et al.}, (USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1958) p.563 [in russian].
- Investigation of the average nuclear potential (with B.A.Volchok), ZhETF 36, 539 (1959).
- Quadrupole oscillations of deformed nuclei (with B.L.Birbrair and L.K.Peker), ZhETF 36, 803 (1959).
- Calculation of $^{206}$Tl and $^{210}$Bi energy levels (with Yu.I.Kharitonov), ZhETF 37, 1151 (1959).
- Pairing forces and pair correlations in $^{206}$Pb (with V.N.Guman and G.A.Sogomonova), ZhETF 40, 341 (1961); Pairing forces and pair correlations in} $^{206}$Pb, $^{210}$Pb and $^{210}$Po (with V.N.Guman, Yu.I.Kharitonov and G.A.Sogomonova), Nucl. Phys. 28, 192 (1961).
- Pairing forces and pair correlations in} $^{206}$Tl, and $^{210}$Bi (with G.A.Sogomonova and Yu.I.Kharitonov), ZhETF 40, 946 (1961); Nucl. Phys. 28, 210 (1961).
- Four-nucleon correlations in} $^{212}$Po (with I.M.Band and Yu.I.Kharitonov), ZhETF 41, 1274 (1961).
- Four and more nucleons outside closed shells: $^{212}$Po spectrum (with I.M.Band and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Nucl. Phys. 35, 136 (1962).
- Tables of internal conversion coefficients for K and L shells (with I.M.Band), In: Gamma rays, ed. L.A.Sliv (USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1961) p.318 [in russian].
- Tables of internal conversion coefficients (with I.M.Band), In: Alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, ed. K.Siegbahn, vol.2 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965) p.1639.
- A level with spin I=16 in $^{212}$Po (with Yu.I.Kharitonov), ZhETF 44, 247 (1963).
- Residual pair forces in $^{18}$O and $^{18}$F (with G.M.Bukat and G.A.Sogomonova), ZhETF 44, 316 (1963).
- Residual n-p interaction in heavy nuclei, and high isomeric states (with Yu.I.Kharitonov), ZhETF 46, 811 (1964); Nucl. Phys. 60, 177 (1964).
- Many-nucleon system in the shell-model potential (with I.M.Band and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Nucl. Phys. 54, 369 (1964).
- Isobaric spin in heavy nuclei (with Yu.I.Kharitonov), Phys. Lett. 16, 176 (1965); Yad. Fiz. 1, 1129 (1965).
- Tables of the conversion matrix elements and phases (with I.M.Band and M.A.Listengarten), in Alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, ed. K.Siegbahn, vol.2 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965) p.1673; Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 29, 102 (1965).
- Particle parameters for angular correlations of conversion electrons (with I.M.Band, M.A.Listengarten and J.E.Thun), in Alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, ed. K.Siegbahn, vol.2 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965) p.1683.
- Nuclear models and the modern nuclear theory (with M.Ya.Amusia), In: Reports of Conf. on nuclear structure theory, Leningrad, 1966 (A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Leningrad, 1966) p.3.
- Tensor forces in pair interaction (with Yu.I.Kharitonov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 30, 1086 (1966).
- Tables of the conversion matrix elements and phases (with I.M.Band and M.A.Listengarten), In: Internal conversion processes, ed. J.H.Hamilton (Academic Press, N.Y., 1966) p.589.
- Isobaric analog states in medium and heavy nuclei, In: Lectures given at All-Union Summer School on nuclear spectroscopy with nuclear reactions, Obninsk, 1966, ed. A.I.Lashuk et al. (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, 1967) p.277; Isobaric analog states in nuclei, Proc. 2nd School on nuclear structure theory, Leningrad, 1967 (A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Leningrad, 1967) p.1.
- Para- and orthostates in atomic nuclei (with B.L.Birbrair), Phys. Lett. B24, 444 (1967).
- Tensor forces in the residual interaction in nuclei (with K.B.Baktybaev, I.M.Band and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Yad. Fiz. 6, 270 (1967).
- Particle interaction in nuclei, Proc. of 3rd Winter School on nuclear theory and high-energy physics, Leningrad, 1968, ed. N.A.Voinova (A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Leningrad, 1968) p.410; in Nuclear Structure, ed. R.B.Begzhanov (Fan, Tashkent, 1969), p.165.
- Residual interaction in nuclei (with I.M.Band, V.N.Guman and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Phys. Lett. B28, 313 (1968); Yad. Fiz. 8, 1118 (1968).
- Residual interaction in atomic nuclei (with Yu.I.Kharitonov), Spectroscopic and group theoretical method in physics, Racah memorial volume, ed. F.Bloch et al. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968) p.275.
- Spin-orbit interaction in nuclei (with V.N.Guman and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Phys. Lett. B28, 575 (1969); Yad. Fiz. 10, 526 (1969).
- Nuclear forces and the Hartree--Fock calculations of nuclei, Proc. 5th Winter School on nuclear theory and high-energy physics, Leningrad, 1970, vol.1, ed. N.A.Voinova (A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Leningrad, 1970) p.3.
- Some general properties of three and more particle states with large spin (with Yu.I.Kharitonov and L.K.Peker), Phys. Lett. B31, 277 (1970); Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 35, 94 (1971).
- Formation region of internal conversion coefficients (with I.M.Band and M.B.Trzhaskovskaya), Nucl. Phys. A156, 170 (1970); ZhETF Pis'ma 11, 306 (1970); A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute report No.262 (Leningrad, 1970).
- Centrifugal forces in the residual interaction in nuclei (with V.I.Isakov, V.N.Guman and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Yad. Fiz. 12, 504 (1970).
- Special properties of the $j^3$ and $j^{n_1}_1\alpha_1J_1,j_0=\frac12$ configuration multiplets (with Yu.I.Kharitonov and L.K.Peker), A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute report No.307 (Leningrad, 1970).
- Experiments for determination
of effective
interaction parameters in nuclei, in: Problems of modern
nuclear
physics, ed. V.M.Kolybasov (Nauka, Moscow, 1971) p.188.

- Multiplets of $j_1\,^1j_2\,^1$ two-particle states in even-even nuclei (with L.K.Peker and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 36, 89 (1972).
- Configuration mixing and effective charge in $^{211}$At (with V.I.Isakov and T.A.Kozhamkulov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 36, 798 (1972).
- New data on nuclei with near-closed shells, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 36, 2026 (1972).
- Effective interaction and the properties of nuclei in the lead region (with V.I.Isakov and T.A.Kozhamkulov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 36, 2157 (1972).
- Isospin and isobaric analog states in
nuclei, Proc. 2nd Seminar on electromagnetic interactions of
nuclei at low and medium energies, Moscow, 1972, ed. L.E.Lazareva et al. (Nauka, M., 1973) p.245

- Current state of the theory of isobaric analog resonances, in: Problems of atomic science and technique, High-energy and nuclear physics series, vol. 1(10), ed. A.P.Kljucharev et al. (Kharkov Physico-Technical Institute, Kharkov, 1974) p.3.
- Charge independence and charge symmetry of nuclear forces, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 38, 2 (1974).
- On the $^{209}$Bi magnetic moment (with V.I.Isakov, Yu.I.Kharitonov and S.A.Artamonov), Yad. Fiz. 20, 283 (1974); $^{209}$Bi magnetic moments calculated in the extended basis (with V.I.Isakov and Yu.I.Kharitonov), Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute (LNPI) report No.129 (Leningrad, 1974).
- Analysis of data on the magnetic moments of lead-region nuclei (with V.I.Isakov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 38, 2466 (1974).
- The scattering of fast particles and the clustering phenomena, Phys. Lett. B58, 266 (1975); (with B.I.Barts), Proc. 10th Winter School on nuclear and elementary particles physics, Leningrad, 1975, vol.1, ed. N.A.Voinova et al. (LNPI, Leningrad, 1975) p.178.
- Internal conversion of
$\gamma$ rays on $\mu$ mesons (with
I.M.Band and M.A.Listengarten), ZhETF Pis'ma 22, 488 (1975).

- Aligned high-spin states (with Yu.I.Kharitonov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 40, 1098 (1976).
- $\mu$-mesic conversion of nuclear $\gamma$ radiation (with F.F.Karpeshin, I.M.Band and M.A.Listengarten), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 40, 1164 (1976).
- Matrix elements of the effective nuclear interaction in particle--particle, hole--hole, and particle--hole channels (with V.I.Isakov, Yu.I.Kharitonov and S.A.Artamonov), LNPI report No.276 (Leningrad, 1976).
- Excitation of giant multipole resonances by 1GeV protons (with A.Bulgac and V.I.Mlotack), LNPI report No.362 (Leningrad, 1977); (with A.Bulgac) Proc. Predeal Int. Summer School, Predeal, Romania, 1978, ed. A.Berinde et al., p.1059.
- Spectra of lead-region nuclei
calculated with the random phase
approximation method (with V.I.Isakov and S.A.Artamonov), Izv.
Akad.
Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 41, 2074
(1977).

- Internal conversion accompanied with mono-energetic positron production (with F.F.Karpeshin), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 42, 186 (1978).
- Investigation of $\alpha$-particle channels in the $^{58}$Ni disintegration induced by 1 GeV protons (with E.N.Volnin, A.A.Vorobyov, V.T.Grachov et al.), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 42, 2442 (1978); ZhETF Pis'ma 28, 45 (1978).
- Coupling between giant resonances and $\alpha$-cluster nuclear states (with Yu.I.Kharitonov and Yu.F.Smirnov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 45, 66 (1981).
- Frontiers of nuclear physics, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 133, 337 (1981); Proc. 15th Winter School, Leningrad, 1980, Nuclear physics volume, ed. Yu.N.Novikov et al. (LNPI, Leningrad, 1980) p.5.
- The excitation of giant resonances with fast protons (with A.Bulgac, M.B.Zhalov and M.Ya.Amusia), Nucl. Phys. A355, 321 (1981).
- The problem of magnetic giant resonances, Proc. 16th Winter School, Leningrad, 1981, Nuclear Physics volume, ed. V.E.Bunakov et al. (Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad, 1981) p.3.
- Effective interaction of valence nucleons in nuclei (with V.I.Isakov and S.A.Artamonov), Yad. Fiz. 35, 302 (1982); LNPI report No.627 (Leningrad, 1980).
- Actual problems in physics of giant resonances (with M.B.Zhalov), Proc. 5th Seminar on electromagnetic interactions of nuclei at low and medium energies, Moscow, 1981 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, 1982) p.52; LNPI report No.710 (Leningrad, 1981).
- Microscopic nuclear theory and quantum chromodynamics (with M.I.Strikman and L.L.Frankfurt), Proc. 17th Winter School, Leningrad, 1982, Nuclear physics volume, ed. A.N.Moskalev et al. (Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad, 1982) p.3.
- Investigation of giant isoscalar resonances (with M.B.Zhalov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 46, 2136 (1982).
- Effective interaction and the structure of odd spherical nuclei (with V.I.Isakov, V.M.Belenkii and S.A.Badalov), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR (ser. fiz.) 47, 928 (1983).
- Sum rules for spin--isospin
excitations and the internal structure of the nucleon, Yad. Fiz.
38, 270 (1983).

- The proton-rich nucleus $^{146}$Gd: its magicity and properties of its neighbors (with S.A.Artamonov, V.I.Isakov, S.G.Ogloblin and V.R.Shaginyan), Yad. Fiz. 39, 328 (1984); LNPI report No.834 (Leningrad, 1983).